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Ciao,

sto cercando delle schede che parlino del genere Cupiennius (la natura e la morfologia)!

chi saprebbe aiutarmi a cercarle?

 

ps: il Cupiennius secondo me è "fantastico"! :blush: appena mi è cominciata la passione per gli aracnidi mi sono subito innamorato di questo genere...in un futuro vicino "sarà mio"! eheh :lol: ;)

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Vai QUI.

E' completamente in inglese, vengono osservate tre specie del genere Cupiennius, vedi se può tornarti utile in qualche modo.

Se vuoi scaricarti il file Pdf corrispondente, fai tasto destro e Salva Oggetto Con Nome sul primo link che vedi nella pagina che ti si apre.

 

Poi ci sarebbero due pagine in francese, di più diretta assimilazione:

Cupiennius coccineus

Cupiennius salei

 

Sembravano fatte bene, e con una struttura espositiva simile a quelle redatte su Aracnofilia. :lol:

Se riesci a fartele tradurre da qualcuno, secondo me ti possono tornare molto utili.

 

Ciao :blush:

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traducetemi questo grazie:

1994 . The Journal of Arachnology 22 :32–3 8

FIELD OBSERVATIONS ON THE POPULATION STRUCTUR E

OF THREE CTENID SPIDERS

(CUPIENNIUS, ARANEAE, CTENIDAE)

Martin Schuster, Dieter Baurecht, Erich Mitter, Alain Schmitt and Friedrich G.

Barth: Institut fur Zoologie, Abteilung Neurobiologie, Universitat Wien, Althanstr .

14, A-1090 Wien, Austria

ABSTRACT. The population structure of three large species of the genus Cupiennius was evaluated . Although

solitary, 45% of C. coccineus, 40% of C. salei and 30% of C. getazi spiders were found on plants together with

one or more conspecifics . The adult sex ratio (males : females) was 1 :1 .2 for C. salei (1989, n = 52), 1 :1 .3 for

C. coccineus (1990, n = 75) and 1 :1 .6 for C . getazi (1990, n = 29) . The ratio of adults : immatures was 1 :0 . 5

for C . salei, 1 :1 .8 for C. coccineus and 1 :13 for C. getazi . The two sympatric species, C. coccineus and C. getazi ,

sometimes occur on the same plants and are therefore considered syntopic. In all three species spider density

is correlated with the number of the retreats offered by their dwelling plants . We found up to 0.2 adults/plant

for C . salei and 0 .3 adults per plant for C. coccineus and C. getazi . Cupiennius spiders, particularly the males,

change their dwelling plants quite often . On average, C. salei males could only be found for 0.5 day on the same

plant without interruption (five days observation time), C. coccineus males for one day (21 days observation

time) whereas females with eggsacs of these two species stay significantly longer (3 .5 days and 8 days, respectively;

21 days observation time) . Considering the rather high population density and the frequent changes of th e

dwelling plants (the males in particular), interactions between spiders seem very likely. In the lab, male com -

petition in addition to courtship between the sexes is elicited by male vibratory courtship signals . Overt fight s

between males were observed in the field .

Wandering spiders of the genus Cupiennius

Simon 1891 (Araneae, Ctenidae) are solitary an d

nocturnal . They live on monocots, such as bromeliads

and banana plants . The leaves of these

plants provide protective retreats for the spider s

at their base where they form narrow spaces

(chalices) with openings only at their upper sid e

(see Fig . 2) . During the day the animals hide in

these spaces (Barth et al . 1988b) . At night the

spiders come out of their retreats to ambush, t o

prey and to court on their dwelling plants . Upon

contact with female silk, the male is aroused and

emits vibratory courtship signals . These are

propagated across the plant and elicit vibrator y

responses in a female if she is motivated an d

within the reach of the male vibrations (Bart h

1985; Rovner & Barth 1981) . The male courtship

signals elicit competition behavior in other males .

Rivals approach each other and fight, the winne r

then copulates with the female (Schmitt et al .

1992) . Adult Cupiennius males show higher locomotor

activities than females without an egg -

sac . It is suggested that this is due to sexually

motivated searching behavior (Schmitt et al .

1990) . Between the sympatric species C. coccineus

and C. getazi several ethological mating -

barriers are known to exist and only 13% of th e

females of these two species respond to the court -

ship signals of males of the other species (Bart h

& Schmitt 1991) .

The study of questions related to sexual selection

(Schmitt et al . 1990, 1992) and species recognition

(Barth & Schmitt 1991), which are currently

the focus of our interest, requires not onl y

quantitative analysis of behavior in the laboratory

as mentioned above but also information

on the density and structure of spider populations

and information on intra- and interspecifi c

interactions in the field . Do the spiders liv e

densely enough to make male-male interaction s

likely? When males meet, do they actually fight

for females, as shown in the lab? In search for

females, do males change their dwelling plants

more often than females? Do the sympatric species

actually share their dwelling plants, i. e ., are

they syntopic?

Here we report on field observations made i n

Central America on the three large species of th e

genus, C. salei, C. coccineus and C. getazi (Lachmuth

et al . 1984) . The ranges of C. salei and of

32

SCHUSTER ET AL.—FIELD OBSERVATIONS ON CUPIENNIUS

3 3

Table 1 .—Population densities of three Cupiennius species (maxima observed in the wild) . (1) Musa sapientium

(n = 167) ; (2) Aechmea mexicana (n = 86) ; (3) Aechmea maria reginae (n = 12), Vrisea regalis (n = 14) ; (4 )

Aechmea mexicana (1989 : n = 17 ; 1990 : n = 37), Guzmania zani (n = 8); (5) Xanthosoma sagittifolium (1989 :

n = 46 ; 1990 : n = 144); (6) Gynerium sagittatum ; —data not available.

Density o f

Density of adults

all spiders

Adults All pe r

Spiders

Plants

Year

(n)

(n)

m2

plant retreat

m2 plant retreat

C. salei

banana plants (1)

 

1989

37

47

0 .04

0 .2

0 .2

0 .1

0 .3

0 . 3

bromeliads

(2)

1989

15

35

1 .7

0 .2

3 .9

0 .4

C. coccineus

bromeliads A (3)

1989

8

25 0 .3

0 .3

0.8

1 .1

1990

5

26

0 .2

0 .2

0 .01

0 .9

1 .0

0 .0 4

bromeliads B (4)

1989

8

12 0 .5

0 .3

0 .8

0.5

1990

5

10

0 .3

0 .1

0 .01

1 .5

0.2

0 .0 3

C. getazi

Araceae

(5)

1989

14

42 0 .5

0 .3

1 .4

0 .9

1990

14

189

0 .1

0 .1

0 .01

1 .1

1 .3

0 . 2

Poaceae

(6)

1989

0

0 0.0

0 .0

1990

9

54 0.5

2 .8

the other two species do not overlap whereas C . Cupiennius coccineus .—Spiders of this species

coccineus and C. getazi live sympatrically (Barth were observed in the south-west of Costa Ric a

at the Wilson Botanical Garden of the Organisation

for Tropical Studies (OTS), near San Vito ,

Coto Brus, between 5—15 March 1989 and between

3 January—25 February 1990 . Two patche s

with bromeliads planted on the ground (A = 3 0

m2 , B = 15 m 2 , see Table 1) and four small group s

of banana plants were investigated . Most of th e

bromeliads had been untended from two month s

prior to our investigations onward . In patch B ,

20 bromeliads, which had been planted only thre e

days before investigations in 1990 started, wer e

not treated separately from the untended bromeliads

in our observations . In a homogeneou s

group of 12 bromeliads (Vrisea regalis, part of

patch A) the plants were assigned to two categories

based on the number of retreats (categor y

1 : 21, category 2 : > 21 retreats; 6 plants per

category) . The mean numbers of animals encountered

on each plant and day (x) of both categories

were compared . C. coccineus was als o

observed at the OTS station in La Selva and near

Cahuita, Costa Rica and near Colon and Portobello

in Panama (for details see below) .

Cupiennius getazi.—We observed C. getazi i n

the north-east of Costa Rica at the La Selva Biological

Station of the OTS between the 26—2 7

February 1989 and between the_ March 1—Apri l

6, 1990 . Data were obtained from four patche s

(1989: 30 m2 , 1990 : 98, 46, and 28 m2) in a dens e

stand ofXanthosoma and from a 20 m2 patch i n

a temporary swamp covered with grass in th e

per

et al . 1 988b) .

METHODS

Spiders were observed mainly during the nigh t

between 1900 h and 2400 h . This is the perio d

of maximum locomotor activity (Barth & Seyfarth

1979 ; Schmitt et al . 1990) when the spiders

leave their retreats to prey and court on the lea f

surfaces . Plants with easy-to-inspect retreats, suc h

as those ofXanthosoma and Musa, were searched

for spiders during the day, too . In accordance

with our experience in the field all leaf bases

forming openings 20 mm or more in width wer e

considered potential retreats . Spiders were

marked with small color spots (correction fluid )

on their prosoma and/or opisthosoma and/or legs.

Cupiennius salei . —Observations were carrie d

out in Mexico (Fortin de Ias Flores in the state

of Veracruz) between 10—14 February 1989 . We

investigated an untended patch (9 m 2) of 86 bromeliads

(for names of plant species see Table 1 )

and an untended site of banana plants (1000 m2) ,

the latter forming 24 groups each consisting of

3—15 individual plants. The banana plants were

up to six m high . We searched for spiders up to

a height of approximately two meters . We count -

ed the number of individuals found in the 24

groups of banana plants (9 counts in 4 days) an d

correlated the mean number of spiders of each

group with the number of: plants and retreats .

34

THE JOURNAL OF ARACHNOLOGY

juveniles

 

females

males

we expected C. getazi to live syntopically with

C. coccineus, could be searched for spiders onl y

once .

primary forest (see Table 1) . The swamp had

dried up four weeks and one week before ou r

investigations in 1989 and 1990, respectively .

ao

We searched for spiders along roughly 2000 m

(1989) and 3000 m (1990) of wayside of the trails .. ,

of La Selva up to a height of approximately two

cLf meters . Several small groups of banana plants Q

near the forest were also investigated .

All Xanthosoma patches were examined fo r

spiders three times within a week, except one as

patch which was examined only once in 1990 . °

The number of spiders per plant and the numbe r

of retreats per plant did not differ significantl y

among the patches . For each year we summe d

up all counts of all patches in order to get suffi- o

a0

cient data for statistical analysis, resulting in a

total of 135 plants and 94 spider counts in 1989, o

and 507 plants and 326 spider counts in 1990 . 17.

The plants were grouped to form seven categories m having from 2—8 retreats per plant .

n.

C. getazi spiders were also observed near Co -

lon in the Panama Canal Zone on grass at the v edge of a forest (150 m 2), near Portobello, Panama,

in a patch densely overgrown with Xanthosoma

and Heliconia (800 m2) and near Cam

huita, Costa Rica, in a patch very similar to that o

of Portobello (900 m 2 ) . These patches, in which m

ao

LL

60

0

0

 

40

i0

0

20

Cupiennius salei.—The dense bromeliad patc h

in Fortin de las Flores had the highest populatio n

density found for any of the Cupiennius species juveniles females males

(adults : 1 .7/m2 ; total : 3.9/m2; Table 1) . On banana

plants, population density is highly correlated

with the number of the available retreat s

(Pearson's r = 0.87, n = 24, P < 0 .001) . The

number of spiders and the number of availabl e

plants are more weakly correlated (r = 0 .47, n =

24, P < 0 .05) .

The sex ratio of adults was 1 :1 .2 (males : females;

n = 52) . Of all the spiders observed, 32%

were juveniles . Each time we found a spider we

recorded the simultaneous presence of conspecifics

on the same plant . All counts were summed

(Fig . 1) . Most of the juveniles were found alon e

on their dwelling plants, but about 28% and 18 %

of the adults were found to share their dwelling

plant with conspecific females and males, respectively

(Fig . 1) . We also observed two male s

courting and fighting close to a retreat occupie d

by a female (Fig. 2) .

RESULTS

qalone ® with juveniles • with 2 j] with d

Figure 1 .-Co-occurrence of conspecific individual s

on the same plant (banana plants, bromeliads, yanti a

plants (Xanthosoma)) evaluated for three species of th e

genus Cupiennius . N = number of observed spiders, n

= number of observations. C. salei : N = 47, n = 47 ;

C. coccineus : N = 107, n = 673 ; C . getazi: N = 146 ,

n=334.

to o

too

60

40

20

0

to o

6 0

40

20

o -

0

C. ea/el

juveniles

females

males

C. coccineus

C. getazi _,

Females of C. salei carrying an eggsac usually

close their retreat firmly with a sheet-web and

do not leave it until the spiderlings hatch (Melchers

1963) . In two cases, however, we observe d

males courting and then copulating with a femal e

carrying an eggsac .

For how long do spiders dwell on the sam e

plant without interruption (hereafter called resSCHUSTER

ET AL .—FIELD OBSERVATIONS ON CUPIENNIUS

3 5

pseudostem

leaf base

retreat

5 days

empty

juvenil e

female

female with eggsac

male

* competing males

1

1 m

Figure 2.—C. salei spiders found on a group of banana plants . The locations of females, males and juvenile s

are shown over a period of five days . Two of the females built an eggsac during the observation period . Two

males were fighting close to a female sitting in her retreat (see asterisk) . All observations were made at night .

IiMlii 4

II I /a 00

idence time)? On banana plants (observation tim e

five days), females with eggsacs stay significantly

longer than both females without an eggsac and

males; females with eggsac: median = 3 .5 days,

range 1 .5-5 days, n = 7 ; females without eggsac :

0 .5 day, 0 .5—5 days, n = 16 ; males : 0 .5 day, 0 .5—

3 .5 days, n = 14; (df = 2, P < 0.005 ; Kruskal -

Wallis analysis of variance, Siegel & Castellan

1988) . Residence times of females without eggsa c

and of males do not differ from each other (observation

time 5 days) .

Cupiennius coccineus.—The population den -

sity of adults in bromeliad patch B in Las Cruce s

was higher in 1989 than in 1990 (0 .3 and 0 . 1

adults/plant, respectively, Table 1) . In the primary

forest of La Selva we roughly estimate d

one adult C . coccineus every 50 m along the trail

in 1989. In 1990 the only Cupiennius spider we

found was one C . coccineus female along the entire

stretch searched . On bromeliads we found

significantly more animals on plants of categor y

2 with more retreats (x = 1 .24 ± 1 .02, P < 0 .01 )

than on those of category 1 with fewer retreats

(x = 0 .23 ± 0 .46, t-test, df= 102 ; 149 encounters

in 17 days) .

The sex ratio of adults was 1 :1 .3 (males : females;

n = 75). Of all the spiders observed, 63%

were juveniles . C . coccineus was more often cooccurring

with conspecifics than C. salei . Still

about 60% were sitting alone on their plant (Fig .

1). The maximum accumulation of spiders we

observed was on a big bromeliad (Aechmea mexicana,

diameter 2 m) where three males courted

and fought in the presence of one female and on e

juvenile .

Females with eggsacs had their retreats closed

by a sheet-web . Unlike C. salei, eggsac-carrying

females of C. coccineus leave their retreats temporarily

. We found the retreat (and dwelling plant )

of such a female (female B, Fig . 3) empty on 2

February at 1815 h, but the same day at 2120 h

the female had returned . Nevertheless, female s

carrying an eggsac are similar to C . salei in remaining

significantly longer on the same plant

(median = 8 days, range 2—12 days, n = 5) than

both females without eggsac (median = 2 days,

36

 

THE JOURNAL OF ARACHNOLOGY

day of february

location 1 2 5 6 8 10 12 13 14 16 17 18 19 21 23 24

1 5 H

2 4 H_ H H H H

3 A A A A A A A A A A A A G G

4 G G _

5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

_

6 G

7 B B - - T - 8 2

9 E E

10 3 F_ F F F F F F F F

trunk C C G

P

1 D - -

p2 D

p3 D

Figure 3.-C. coccineus spiders dwelling on bromeliads (see bromeliads B, 1990, Table 1) . (a) The site with

8 Guzmania zani growing on approximately 1 .5 m high bamboo posts (p) and 37 Aechmea mexicana growing

on the ground . Labels of bromeliads (1-10) and posts (pl-p3) refer to location codes in (:lol: . (;) The locations

of adult females (A-G) and males (1-5) were observed over a period of 24 days (juveniles not shown). Females

A and B were carrying eggsacs and were sitting in retreats closed by loose sheet-webs . All observations were

made at night .

range 1-13 days, n = 14) and males (median =-

1 day, range 1-12 days, n = 19, Kruskal-Walli s

test, df= 2, P < 0 .05) . Residence times of females

without eggsac and males do not differ from eac h

other (Kruskal-Wallis test, ns; observation tim e

21 days) .

Cupiennius getazi . - Spider density was calculated

for the Xanthosoma area and the swamp

area (Table 1) . Dramatic differences between th e

two observation years were found in the swam p

area . Whereas in 1990 spider density was high ,

in 1989 we did not observe a single specimen .

In the primary forest we found C. getazi on a

few bromeliads growing on the ground . In th e

Xanthosoma patches the number of spiders per

plant was positively correlated with the numbe r

of retreats on the plants (1989 : Spearman's rs =

0.94, P < 0.05 ; 1990 : rs = 1 .0, P < 0.01), but

not with the number of plants (1989 : rs = - 0 .66 ,

ns ; 1990 : rs = -0 .39, ns) .

The sex ratio of C . getazi was 1 :1 .6 (males :

females ; n = 29) . Of all the spiders observed,

93% were juveniles . Fig . 1 shows that only juveniles

co-occur on the same individual plant t o

SCHUSTER ET AL .—FIELD OBSERVATIONS ON CUPIENNIUS

3 7

any appreciable extent (max . three juveniles) . We

observed two pairs copulating and one courting

male in front of a female sitting in her retreat .

C. getazi (like C. salei and C. coccineus) is able

to form retreats by drawing together leaves an d

joining them with threads but eggsac-carryin g

females were rarely observed to close their re -

treats with a sheet web .

Syntopy.—In all four areas within the geographic

range of C . getazi and C. coccineus (L a

Selva, Colon, Portobello and Cahuita), we found

both species on the same plant species and sometimes

on the very same plants . There is no evidence

that the different species use different part s

of the plants . In La Selva we found C . getaz i

living syntopically with C. coccineus on banana

plants . In the primary forest of La Selva C . coccineus

and C. getazi were found only at a distance

of at least 8 meters and never on the same plants .

DISCUSSION

Encounters.—When moving about, females

leave pheromone-laden draglines on the plant.

Since Cupiennius spiders quite often change thei r

dwelling plant and locomotor activity is particularly

high in males (Schmitt et al . 1990), a male

is quite likely to come across female threads whe n

wandering . Upon contact with these threads th e

male starts courting and a series of behaviora l

mechanisms ensures species recognition and re -

productive isolation (Barth & Schmitt 1991) . Th e

vibratory courtship signals emitted by the mal e

and the female spread in the plant (Barth et al .

1988a) for several meters . Considering the spider

densities reported here it is very likely that not

only females but also other males perceive thes e

signals . From behavioral experiments with C .

getazi in the lab we know that males perceivin g

male courtship signals react to these with vibratory

competition signals . Rivals approach each

other and fight, the winner then copulates wit h

the female (Schmitt et al . 1992) . Although th e

time periods of our observations in the field were

limited (e . g ., five days for C. salei) we did observe

fighting C . salei and C. coccineus males in

the presence of a nearby female . High populatio n

densities reported in this paper (e . g ., 0 .2 adult s

per plant for C . salei) are within the range found

by Barth & Seyfarth (1979) on banana plants in

Guatemala (0.4 adults per plant) . Considering

the high population densities and that the signals

can be detected by the spiders at least four meter s

away from the source (Schmitt et al . pers . obs .);

we suggest that encounters and fights between

males are frequent and that the behavioral scenarios

examined in the lab are highly significant .

Retreats . — Cupiennius hides in retreats durin g

the day . Protection from predators and from desiccation

are proposed to be the main reasons fo r

this behavior (Barth et al . 1988b) . As shown here

the number of available retreats rather than th e

number of available plants correlates with spide r

density. Curiously, we found C. getazi living

densely in a swamp in 1990 (La Selva) where

vegetation provided no leafsheath-like retreat s

(Table 1) . Spiders sat on the leaves clearly visibl e

even during the day . High density of prey animals

may have led to high spider densities de -

spite the lack of retreats in this area (Wise 1993) .

The swamp had dried up only one week prior t o

our investigations, and there was a large numbe r

of dragonflies on which the spiders preyed . In

1989 the swamp had already been dry for four

weeks before our inspection . Dragonflies were

lacking and we found no C. getazi in this area .

C. getazi spiders were also reported to dwel l

densely in the swamp area in 1985 (Barth et al.

1988b) at a time when it had not dried up ye t

(Barth, pers . obs .) .

Juveniles.—In contrast to the juveniles of th e

other two species, the majority of the juvenile s

of C. salei was found alone on their plants (Fig.

1) . This finding may be an artifact, however, resulting

from our method of investigation . Th e

banana plants, on which our data for C. sale i

were obtained, could be searched for spiders onl y

up to a height of approximately two meters . Thi s

is the area of the big leaf bases which form re -

treats suitable for adult spiders. The smaller juveniles

preferably occur in higher regions of th e

plants or in the leaf litter on the ground (Bart h

& Seyfarth 1979) . Accordingly, only 32% of C .

salei spiders observed in the bananas were juveniles

. Percentages of juvenile spiders found o n

other plants were 57% for C. salei in bromeliads,

63% for C . coccineus in bromeliads and 93% for

C. getazi in Xanthosoma.

Life cycle .—In the lab, Cupiennius lives for

about two years. Maturation takes place at an

age of approximately nine months . The spiders

court, copulate and build eggsacs during any tim e

of the year. In the field, spiders of different sizes ,

ranging from newly hatched spiderlings up to

adults co-occurred in all areas investigated between

January and April. The general impression

was the same during a visit to Costa Rica in th e

summer months (Barth pers . comm.) . Detail s

were never quantified, however. Maturation of

38

 

THE JOURNAL OF ARACHNOLOGY

Cupiennius seems not to be synchronized in either

the laboratory or the field .

Sex ratio . —In all three species we found mor e

females than males . This may have two possibl e

causes, which are not mutually exclusive. First,

due to their higher locomotor activity (Schmitt

et al. 1990) males might be preyed upon mor e

often (sometimes even by the females durin g

courtship) . Second, this finding might be an artifact

. At night females usually sit in or near their

retreats, which can be inspected quite easily .

Males have a higher locomotor activity and

change their dwelling plants more often than th e

females . When wandering about on the plant o r

on the ground the males might be more easil y

overlooked than the females in their retreats .

Considering this possible error the sex ratio measured

by us may be slightly balanced towards th e

females .

Sympatry and syntopy . — Observations in Panama

and Costa Rica prove the syntopy of th e

two sympatric species, C. coccineus and C. getazi

. In the dense C. getazi populations of La

Selva (Xanthosoma, grass), however, we neve r

found C. coccineus . Populations of different species

might overlap only at their peripheries .

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We gratefully acknowledge the assistance received

from the Organisation for Tropical Studies

(OTS) and its research stations in La Selv a

and Las Cruces, Costa Rica . Supported by a grant

of the Fonds zur Forderung der Wissenschaftlichen

Forschung Austria, to FGB (project s

P6769B and P7896B) and by grants of the Bundesministerium

fur Wissenschaft and Forschung,

Austria, to EM and MS .

LITERATURE CITED

Barth, F . G . 1985 . Neuroethology of the spider vibration

sense, Pp . 203–229, In Neurobiology o f

Arachnids . (F . G. Barth, ed .) Springer, Berlin .

Barth, F . G . & E-A . Seyfarth. 1979 . Cupiennius salei

Keyserling (Araneae) in the highlands of centra l

Guatemala. J . Arachnol ., 7 :255–263 .

Barth, F. G ., H. Bleckmann, J . Bohnenberger & E-A .

Seyfarth . 1988a. Spiders of the genus Cupiennius

Simon 1891 (Araneae, Ctenidae) . II . On the vibratory

environment of a wandering spider . Oecologia ,

77 :194–201 .

Barth, F . G ., E-A. Seyfarth, H . Bleckmann & W . Schoch .

1988b . Spiders of the genus Cupiennius Simon 189 1

(Araneae, Ctenidae) . I . Range distribution, dwellin g

plants, and climatic characteristics of the habitats .

Oecologia, 77 :187-193 .

Barth, F . G . & Schmitt, A. 1991 . Species recognitio n

and species isolation in wandering spiders (Cupiennius

spp ., Ctenidae) . Behay . Ecol . Sociobiol ., 29 :

333-339 .

Lachmuth, U ., M . Grasshoff & F. G . Barth. 1984.

Taxonomische Revision der Gattung Cupiennius

Simon 1891 (Arachnida, Araneae) . Senckenbergiana

Biol ., 65 :329–372 .

Melchers, M . 1963 . Zur Biologie and zum Verhalte n

von Cupiennius salei (Keyserling), einer amerikanischen

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Manuscript received 2 December 1992, revised 29 July

1993 .

 

lo so che chiedo troppo ma chi me lo fa lo ringrazio tantissimo!!! :blush:

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eccolo che colpisce ancora....ragazzi è tornato..... :rolleyes:

Che cosa ho fatto. Che cosa ho fatto. :blush:

:lol: ;) :) ahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahah!!!!!effettivamente l'hai fatta grossa...!!!!

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mavalà, la tua richiesta non è poi cosi eccessiva, è un po' come chiedere ad un tamarino imperatore di conquistare il mondo , distruggendo tutte le reti informatiche con una banana....

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Ahahahahahahah come rendere piacevole un venerdì sera.... eheh pier su coraggio! la prossima volta linkagli una scheda più corta ;) grande eddy!! sei un mito!!! :lol: :lol: :D

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ma dai era uno scherzo!! :lol: :lol: son già riuscito io a tradurlo con un traduttore,non preoccupatevi... :D

 

Mhh... :rolleyes:

In ogni caso alla prossima tua richiesta di scheda su un Aracnide ti linko una bella foto della bestiola e amen. ;)

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mi piace molto tradurre i testi, perciò te ne traduco una parte, ok?

 

1 2 5 6 8 10 12 13 14 16 17 18 19 21 23 24

1 5 H

2 4 H_ H H H H

3 A A A A A A A A A A A A G G

4 G G _

5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

_

6 G

7 B B - - T - 8 2

9 E E

10 3 F_ F F F F F F F F

trunk C C G

P

1 D - -

p2 D

p3 D

 

non sono riuscito a tradurre correttamente "trunk" per inserirlo nel contesto, ma tutto il resto dovrebbe essere ok.

 

ciao, è stato un piacere, spero di essere stato utile.

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